(Last Updated On: November 8, 2021)
What are the main Components of a Computer Motherboard?
Chipset: A chipset consists of several circuits that together form a unit. The chipset connects the CPU with RAM, ROM, and other components, interfaces, and kits.
CPU socket: The CPU (Central Processing Unit), the main processor, is attached to the so-called processor socket. The CPU is an electronic circuit and the central processing unit of a computer. The best-known manufacturers of CPUs are Intel and AMD. However, it should be noted that not every CPU fits on every CPU socket!
PCI slots: The PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) slots are used to expand the system. Plug-in cards such as network cards and sound cards are attached to the PCI slots. The older PCI slots are now being replaced by the faster PCI Express slots, as the transfer rate is higher with PCI Express.
RAM slots: There are usually two to four slots for RAM (Random Access Memory), the main memory. The RAM is required so that programs and program parts can be executed.
AGP / PCIe slots: These are slots for the graphics cards, which on the computer ensure that output is visible on the screen/monitor. AGP slots are the forerunners of modern PCIe slots and are being replaced by PCIe.
BIOS chip: The BIOS (Basic Input / Output System) carries out a system check every time the computer is started and initializes all connected hardware components. The BIOS then starts the operating system.
SATA connections: A SATA connection (Serial Advanced Attachment) is a standard for data transmission that has replaced the older IDE connections due to a better data transfer rate. Hard disks (HDD or SSD) and optical drives are connected to the SATA connectors.
Cooler/fan: For the CPU and the other components to perform well, they must be cooled using a heat sink and the warm air transported away since heat is generated while a computer is switched on. For this purpose, coolers or fans are built into computers connected to the power supply via pin connections.
Battery and power connection: A computer does not work without a power connection, as it supplies the mainboard and the remaining components of a computer with power. Therefore, it is important to ensure that the power supply and the motherboard are compatible to guarantee the power supply. Batteries are built into these computers so that the computer (e.g., a laptop or notebook) does not just hang on the cable.
Additional kits for interfaces: USB port, LAN socket, audio jack connections, HDMI connection, VGA connection, other peripheral devices, etc.
In the past, the mainboard has two chipsets, the Northbridge and the Southbridge. The Northbridge connects CPU, RAM, and graphics card and is more powerful than the Southbridge. On the other hand, the Southbridge connects the peripherals (e.g., mouse, keyboard, and interfaces such as USB port). The trend in the past few years has been to install only one major chipset. However, due to the heat development of both components, some manufacturers are again using two chipsets and are going back to the model of a two-part chipset with Northbridge and Southbridge.
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